Kemal Atatürk  (or additionally composed as Kamâl Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal Pasha [a] until 1934, frequently referred to as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; [b] 1881 [c]-- 10 November 1938), was a Turkish field marshal, revolutionary statesman, author, and the creator of the Republic of Turkey, working as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938. His good-hearted dictatorship carried out sweeping progressive reforms, which updated Turkey into a nonreligious, industrial nation.Ideologically a secularist and nationalist, his policies and theories ended up being called Kemalism. Due to his military and political achievements, Atatürk is concerned according to research studies as one of the biggest leaders of the 20th century.
Atatürk pertained to prominence for his function in securing the Ottoman Turkish success at the Fight of Gallipoli (1915) throughout World War I. Following the defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, he led the Turkish National Motion, which resisted mainland Turkey's partition among the victorious Allied powers. Establishing a provisional federal government in the contemporary Turkish capital Ankara, he beat the forces sent by the Allies, therefore emerging victorious from what was later referred to as the Turkish War of Independence. He subsequently continued to eliminate the shabby Ottoman Empire and announced the foundation of the Turkish Republic in its location.
As the president of the freshly formed Turkish Republic, Atatürk started a strenuous program of political, financial, and cultural reforms with the ultimate aim of constructing a modern-day, progressive and secular nation-state. He made primary education complimentary and required, opening countless new schools all over the nation. He also introduced the Latin-based Turkish alphabet, changing the old Ottoman Turkish alphabet. Turkish ladies got equivalent civil and political rights during Atatürk's presidency ahead of numerous Western nations.  In specific, females were offered voting rights in local elections by Act no. 1580 on 3 April 1930 and a couple of years later, in 1934, complete universal suffrage, earlier than many other democracies in the world.
His federal government performed a policy of Turkicisation, attempting to create edebiyat sokağı an uniform and unified nation. Under Atatürk, non-Turkish minorities were pushed to speak Turkish in public, non-Turkish toponyms and last names of minorities needed to be changed to Turkish performances. The Turkish Parliament granted him the surname Atatürk in 1934, which suggests "Father of the Turks", in acknowledgment of the role he played in developing the modern Turkish Republic.  He passed away on 10 November 1938 at Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul, at the age of 57 he was been successful as President by his veteran Prime Minister İsmet İnönü  and was honored with a state funeral. His renowned mausoleum in Ankara, constructed and opened in 1953, is surrounded by a park called the Peace Park in honor of his famous expression "Peace in your home, Peace worldwide".
In 1981, the centennial of Atatürk's birth, his memory was honoured by the United Nations and UNESCO, which stated it The Atatürk Year in the World and adopted the Resolution on the Atatürk Centennial, describing him as "the leader of the very first struggle provided versus colonialism and imperialism" and a "exceptional promoter of the sense of understanding between peoples and long lasting peace between the nations of the world which he worked all his life for the advancement of harmony and cooperation between peoples without difference".   Atatürk is commemorated by numerous memorials and locations called in his honor throughout Turkey and the world. Eleftherios Venizelos, former Prime Minister of Greece, forwarded Atatürk's name for the 1934 Nobel Peace Reward.